Friday, March 6, 2020

John Alden Jr. and the Salem Witch Trials

John Alden Jr. and the Salem Witch Trials John Alden Jr. (1626 or 1627 - March 25, 1702) was a soldier and sailor accused of witchcraft on a visit to the town of Salem and imprisoned in the 1692  Salem witch trials; he escaped from jail and was later exonerated. John Alden Jr.s Parents and Wife Father: John Alden Sr., a crew member on the Mayflower when it sailed to Plymouth Colony; he decided to stay in the new world. He lived until about 1680. Mother: Priscilla Mullins Alden, whose family and brother Joseph died during the first winter in Plymouth; her only other relatives, including a brother and sister, had remained in England. She lived until after 1650, and possibly until the 1670s. John Alden and Priscilla Mullins were married in 1621, probably the second or third couple among the colonists to marry in Plymouth. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1858 wrote The Courtship of Miles Standish, based on a family tradition about the couple’s relationship. Recent evidence suggests that the story may be based on fact. Priscilla and John Alden had ten children who lived past infancy. One of the two eldest was John Jr.; he and the other two eldest children were born in Plymouth. The others were born after the family moved to Duxbury, Massachusetts. John Alden Jr. married Elizabeth Phillips Everill in 1660. They had fourteen children together. John Alden Jr. Before the Salem Witch Trials John Alden had been a sea captain and a Boston merchant before he became involved in the events in Salem in 1692. In Boston, he was a charter member of the Old South Meeting House. During King William’s War (1689 – 1697), John Alden held a military command, while he also maintained his business dealings in Boston. John Alden Jr. and the Salem Witch Trials In February 1692, at about the time that the first girls were displaying their symptoms of affliction in Salem, John Alden Jr. was in Quebec, ransoming British prisoners held there after their capture in the raid on York, Maine, in January. In that attack, a group of Abenaki, led by Madockawando and a French priest, attacked the town of York. (York is now in Maine and was at the time part of the Province of Massachusetts.) The raid killed about 100 English settlers and another 80 were taken hostage, forced to march to New France. Alden was in Quebec to pay the ransom for the freedom of the British soldiers captured in that raid. Alden stopped in Salem on his return to Boston. There had already been rumors that he was, through his business, supplying the French and Abenaki side of the war. There had also apparently been rumors of Alden having affairs with Indian women, and even having children by them. On May 19, a rumor came to Boston through some escapees from the Indians that a French leader had been looking for Captain Alden, saying Alden owed him some goods that he had promised to him. This may have been the trigger for the accusations that followed just days later. (Mercy Lewis, one of the accusers, had lost her parents in Indian raids.) On May 28, a formal accusation of witchcraft- â€Å"cruelly torturing and afflicting several of their Children and others†- against John Alden was filed. On May 31, he was brought from Boston and examined in court by Judges Gedney, Corwin and Hathorne. The court decided to put Alden, and a woman named Sarah Rice, into Boston jail, and instructed the keeper of the prison in Boston to hold him. He was delivered there, but after fifteen weeks, he made an escape from the jail and went to New York to stay with protectors. In December 1692, a court demanded that he appear in Boston to answer charges. In April 1693, John Hathorne and Jonathan Curwin were notified that Alden had been returned to Boston to answer at the Boston Superior Court. But no one appeared against him, and he was cleared by proclamation. Alden published his own account of his involvement in the trials (see excerpts above). John Alden died on March 25, 1702, in Massachusetts Bay province. John Alden Jr. in  Salem, 2014 series John Alden’s appearance during the Salem witch trials has been highly fictionalized in a 2014 series about the events in Salem.  He plays a man much younger than the historical John Alden was, and he is romantically linked in the fictional account to Mary Sibley, though this has no basis in the historical record, with intimations that this was his â€Å"first love.† (The historical John Alden had been married for 32 years and had fourteen children.)

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Phantom Limb Sensations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Phantom Limb Sensations - Essay Example When a sensory nerve is severed during amputation, a nodule called a neuroma will form near the end of the stump. These neuromas can be very sensitive to the touch and were thus believed to generate the mysterious signals. Although surgically removing the neuromas occasionally provided temporary relief, the phantom limb always returned." (Shreeve, 1993). Kandel has explained the grounds of phantom limb disorder, according to which it is important to consider the normal pathways involved in sensation. These pathways involve both hemispheres of the brain containing a deep crack (gap) called the central sulcus. This crack is flanked on either side, by the help of two cortexes, the precentral gyrus (motor cortex), and the post central gyrus (somatosensory cortex). Incoming sensory afferents from the contra lateral (opposite) side of the body resulting in synapsing at the somatosensory cortex after finding its pathways through the thalamus. The somatosensory cortex (S1) is highly ordered in a roughly topographic fashion, containing a receptive field for every body part, with larger receptive fields devoted to areas that are more highly innervated such as the hands and lips. The receptive fields are laid out in an ordered fashion along the length of S1, representing the entire body surface in an abstract map known as a homunculus. When a sensation travels from a particular location to the receptive field, the corresponding receptive field becomes active. Likewise, if an area of S1 is stimulated, the person will feel a sensation in the corresponding body part. (Kandel, 2005). Jensen, Krebs, Nielsen and Rasmussen (1983) have suggested that phantom limb can be divided into two categories as the term "phantom limb" refers to any painful or non-painful sensations occurring in the missing limb of the same individual. Melzack in 1971 proposed Central theory as a physiological explanation of painful phantom limb, this theory also has been interpreted as a psychological explanation by Dawson and Arnold (1981) but as intended by the author it is considered as physiological in nature. It is stated that central theory credits such conscious processes that are based upon schematic representations with the passage of time along with the perception of phantom limb. These schematic representations come into existence from the peripheral sensory mechanisms. Despite of the fact that both are interlinked with one another, both operate independently. Support for this schematic explanation has been provided in studies that show interference of locally anesthetizing peripheral nerves of an intact limb as result in the experience of phantom limb (Melzack, 1973). The main reason for the occurrence of Phantom limb is due to the fact that the brain no longer receives input from the anesthetized periphery, similar t o an amputee's experience, so phantom limb occurs. The two most common pain reactions following an amputation include phantom limb and residual limb pain. Phantom limb sensations, or non-painful sensations in the lost limb, are experienced almost immediately after an amputation. These sensations feel like the missing limb was actually present in its full representation by shape, length, and position in space. These sensations are

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

A proposal on how to reduce energy usage and thereby reduce carbon Essay

A proposal on how to reduce energy usage and thereby reduce carbon emissions in New York State - Essay Example The use of solar and wind energy in the state is quite insignificant, electrical energy from fossil fuels being the main source of energy for both residential and commercial use. The state, however, has a huge potential of using alternative, renewable energy sources including wind, solar and fuel wood (eRedux par 3). The huge amount of fossil fuel used in the production of electrical energy in New York contributes significantly to the production of greenhouse gases, chiefly, carbon dioxide. On average, the New Yorker produces close to 11 tons of carbon dioxide annually from energy consumption (eRedux par 1). In total the state produces about 215 million metric tons of carbon dioxide, the 8th largest in the USA considering that most of the electrical energy is produced in the state comes from coal and natural gas. Considering that a huge amount of greenhouse gases come from the production of electrical energy in the state, there is need to ensure that solar and wind energy are used in large scale to reduce the high level of environmental degradation currently the case. In an endeavor to conserve the environment and save the economy a lot in funds, the state should implement a policy in favor of the statewide use of wind and solar energy within a period five years. With such a policy in place, the gains would be significant in the longer

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Communication Skills in Health Assessment

Communication Skills in Health Assessment An Evaluation of the communication skills demonstrated in the assessment of a service user This essay will evaluate an admission assessment observed a specific assessment observed which was done by mentor. Communication skills that she used will be analysed. Furthermore appropriate literature will be used to understand if the communication skills that were used were the most effective as well as that of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills. All names have been changed for patient confidentiality in accordance with the NMC guidelines (NMC, 2008).The patient will be referred to as Mrs. Smith. Mrs. Smith is an 80yrs old lady widower living alone in a bungalow. She was admitted to the ward from AE. She depends on his son who lives a few miles away and visits him twice weekly. Mrs. Smith was diagnosed of COPD 10 years ago and Ischaemic heart disease 4 years ago. He smokes 40 cigarettes a day. Currently, he is on Salbutamol 200mcg/dose dry powder inhaler 1 puff as required, Spiriva 18mcg inhalation powder capsules once a day, Nicorandil 20mg tablets one twice a day, Simvastatin 40mg tablets once daily and Glyceryl Trinitrate 400mcg/dose pump sublingual spray as required. Over the past few years, he has been admitted to hospital three times owing to exacerbation of COPD and has had a bad chest infection yearly for the past few years. Mrs. Smith has not been well for two days and has been coughing and wheezing with increased Phlegm and a temperature. She lost quite remarkable weight in the past few months because she has not been eating and drinking well. Mrs. Smith could hardly finish a sentence without gasping for breath and appeared anxious when the General Practitioner referred him to hospital. The assessment was done by mentor included the EWS’s. Assessment is the first stage in the nursing process. Kozier, et al (2012) stated that assessment is a systematic collection of data with a view to identifying the patient’s actual and potential health problems. A complete and holistic assessment should take into consideration the individual’s psychological, social, spiritual and cultural needs (Matthews, 2010). Collected data can be subjective or objective (Hoffman, Aitken and Duffield, 2009). Full assessment should be systematic, patient oriented, evidence based and holistic; and nurses should seek informed consent from a patient before initiating assessment, any treatment or care (NMC, 2008). Consent was sought from Mrs. Smith to conduct an assessment on her. There are three types of assessments namely; mini, comprehensive and targeted. Targeted assessment was used in assessing Mrs. Smith. Vital signs were recorded to establish the baseline observations which help in early recognition of patient deterioration allowing early intervention before the patient’s condition worsens (Adam, Odell and Welch, 2010). Mrs. Smith’s respiratory rate was recorded as 21 breaths/minute, implying dysponea whereas normal respiratory rate ranges between 12 and 18 bpm (Dougherty and Lister, 2011). His pulse was 102 beats/minute confirming tachycardia against a normal pulse range of 60 to 100 beats/minute (Hastings, 2009). Nurses should count the pulse and respiratory rates for a full minute each, giving ample time to observe any abnormalities in pulse rate, rhythm and volume (Smith, et al, 2008). With normal blood pressure ranging from 110/60 and 140/90mmHg (Bishop, 2009), Mr Smith’s blood pressure, measured using both an electronic device and a manual cuff was recorded as mild hypertension at 160/90mmHg. Temperature was checked using an electric tympanic thermometer and Mrs. Smith had moderate pyrexia with a core temperature of 38.9 degrees Celsius indicating possible pathogen invasion (Smith and Field, 2011). A normal core body temperature ranges between 36 to 37.5 degrees Celsius (Smith and Robert, 2011). Arterial blood gases (ABG) test analysis was conducted and pulse oximetry was used to record oxygen saturation which read 87% suggesting hypoxemia. Both Felton (2012) indicated that ABGs analysis produces more accurate oxygen saturation than pulse oximetry. My mentor failed to introduce herself first before she touched the patient, which is important when conducting with patients during the time she did the observations. (Henderson ,2004) stated that nurses have to show impression by recognizing yourself as well as your role delivers patients with the sensitivity that you are honest and that they are being appreciated. Mrs. Smith was given a verbal informative account of giving him oxygen therapy and the reason for doing this by my mentor. Verbal language is one of the vital ways in which we communicate and is more helpful way in both gathering and updating patients of their disorder (Berry, 2007). Communication can be verbal and non- verbal.Peate (2005) states that non- verbal communication reinforces a verbally communicated message. Non-judgemental interactions are focused on therapeutic communication, helps settle emotional conflicts and supports heart to heart talks allowing a patient to feel safe and free to share their true feelings, fears, values, hopes and ideas. There are two ways to send a message and it has to be understood and the feedback to be given (Apker, 2001).A patients has to describe the level of his pain (Steveson, 2004). Nurse must make sure that the patients understands what has been said to them and that it is important (Grover, 2005).Close and open questions normally have the ability to determine a huge amount of accurate information. Mentor who administered oxygen therapy to Mrs. Smith did verbally tell Mrs. Smith what she was going to do since this process has not been done earlier to ensure that Mrs. Smith had understood the process which was going to be done. My mentor was aware of Mrs. Smith’s disorder but she failed to make sure that she agreed the procedure. Unfortunately if one does not practice listening skills correctly and related skills without the patient fully considerate can disturb the beneficial connection and often form an obstacle to message (Andrews Smith, 2001). Environmental obstructions such as a busy ward or a strained nurse can every so often decrease the level of kindness and impact real message (Endacott Cooper, 2009). On the other hand nurses must remain sympathetic all the times towards service user’s regardless of pressure altitudes and amount of work (Von Dietze Orb, 2000).My mentor’s procedure did not act in accordance with the NMC guidelines in respects to gaining consent as she failed to notify the patient of the procedure then Mrs. Smith would not recognised what she was agreeing too. Agreement is complex and it can carries a grade of risk for both service user and healthcare staff. In this state Mrs. Smith was incapable to give consent and the oxygen that acquired was in his best interest. Though, regardless of the service user’s understanding the agreement of consent must still be tried (Green, 1999). Timby, (2005) recommends that a service user’s right to self-government must be supported and ap preciated regardless of gender, race, religion, culture and disability. On the other hand well experienced communication procedures are incompetent if the significant idea of the interactive links goes misunderstood (Arnold Boggs, 2007). Charlton etal (2008) debate that there are two unlike statement styles, biomedical and biopsychosocial. The biomedical style focusses on specific evidence relating to the service user’s disorders that is evidence focused. The biopsychosocial style is a patient centred approach which is directed by determining patients’ requires to offer the most existing message method. My mentor if possible should have designed an action plan to regulate the lively method of collaborating with Mrs. Smith in order to carry out the oxygen procedure. For example every patient is not the same their requirements must be measured prior to carrying out any invasive methods. A patient centred method is said to have a more confident impression on patient results. On the other hand there is slightly study that debates personal skills in compared to a massive amount of rich study that argues simple communication skills regardless of proof suggesting that patient focused on care is the most actual manner (Jones, 2007) Patients with breathing problems have difficulties in speaking especially when they are out of breath. The will have problems in communicating sometimes have barriers when trying to speak or trying to explain themselves. This indicate to a failure in communication and sometimes it can cause their health requirements not be met (Turnbull Chapman, 2010). Kacperek, (1997) describes non-verbal communication as the word used to use to describe all methods of communication not organised by language. Argyle, (1988) advocates that the non-verbal element of communication is five times more prominent than the spoken aspect. When Mrs. Smith was given oxygen, my mentor did not the use of non-verbal communication. Research have time and again revealed that language has no real incidence when interactive with patients (Foley, 2010). Non-verbal achievement such facial expressions,posture,touch eye contact and body language, display many feelings need to have verbalise (Foley, 2010). The Solar acronym is also an aid to recognise and think of the performances that should be applied in order to accomplish real communication (Burnard, 1992). This tool includes of position of seat, leaning near the patient, eye contact and relaxation. If the method of non-verbal communication been there Mrs. Smith might have not been nervous and she should had felt more comfortable (Mason, 2010). Dougherty Lister, (2008) is in contract with this model as he argued that remaining eye contact, take down position to the patient’s level and gently touching the service user hand whilst talking to them it helps them not to be scared. However touch is seen to be a real system of nonverbal communication which be able to put a service user at relax if they are worried or frustrated. It is insignificant to note that this method is not suitable for all patients as not all patients will feel relaxed with understanding can give this as attacking of individual’s space (Heidt, 1981). Communicating with people with COPD appears to problems for health care givers (Thornton, 1999). However, the NMC, (2015) competency standard in still that all nurses are to provide best excellence sympathetic care near moral and cultural issues as well as ill health. Jormfeldt, (2010) has presented that a great level of nursing teachings in both academically and practical settings can definitely impact attitudes of nurse’s views near patients. On the other hand, reflection is appreciated as an important factor of managing in these situations as it gives a method where undergraduate nurses can challenge, relate and analysis their assessment systems and hold the method of alteration to a helpful approach concerning patients with illnesses. Dodd Brunker, (1999) debate that by creating combined partnerships with both carers and authorities who are involved in the patients care can support you to evaluate the patient’s communication skills and their chosen ways of communication. Additionally, in agreement with the NMC (2015) rules it is important that all nurses must treat all patients with respect and self-esteem and not differentiate in any way regardless of their age, gender, race and or disability. To develop the circumstances the nurse who administered the oxygen to Mrs. Smith might have communicated with the patient’s family. Since she came to hospital accompanied by her son, this might have given my mentor a good image concerning Mrs. Smith’s about what she enjoys mostly and what she does not like. This might have given her with the greatest means of method of how to carry out all the process. Family members could have been asked to be there with my mentor which might have allow Mrs. Smith to relax. Nurses should every time put patient’s individual requirements first and recognise what is good for the patient morally rather than that of a qualified staff views only (Mencap, 2007). In conclusion, this essay has revealed the communication skills that were observed throughout the oxygen therapies procedure. It is clear that communication is important in nursing care and that assessments of patients are vital in providing the patient centred care. Though, communication is certainly a value powerful for the real caring. Performance and communication of caring and capability at this time have a main effect on the ability of patients and relations to adjust the update, reflect choices, and adjust to anything deceptions forward. Absence of responsiveness in regards to the best method of communicating with patients can position a great risk to patients as several individuals employed within the healthcare area may not have a perfect understanding of ill patients except they are specialised. Extra preparation may be required to make sure that all wellbeing care workers are capable to offer kindly care to patients with disorders. Patients with illnesses have the right to be cured the similar methods as others, regardless of the severity of their illness as all service user would be allowed to a trained staff and genuine service throughout their understanding surrounded by the healthcare atmosphere. REFERENCES Andrews, C., Smith, J. (2001). Medical nursing. London, United Kingdom: Harcourt publishers. Angermeyer, M.H. (2005). Labeling, Stereotyping Discrimination. Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40(5), 391-395. Apker, J. (2001). Role development in the managed care era: A case of hospital-based nursing. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 29(2), 117-136. Argyle, M. (1988). Bodily Communication. London, United Kingdom: Methuen. Arnold, E., Boggs, K. U. (2007). Interpersonal Relationships: Professional communication skills for nurses. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders. Berry, D. (2007). Basic forms of communication. Health communication theory and practice. England, United Kingdom: Open University Press. Burnard, P. (1992). A communication skills guide for hospital care workers. London, United Kingdom: Elsevier. Charlton, C. R., Dearing, K. S., Berry, J. A., Johnson, M. J. (2008). Nurse practitioners 10 communication styles and their impact on patient outcomes: an integrated literature review. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 20, 382–8. Dougherty, L., Lister, S. (2008). The royal marsden hospital manual of clinical nursing procedures. Italy: Wiley Blackwell.  27, 10–15. Endacott, R., Cooper, S. (2009). Nursing skills core and advanced. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Foley, G.N. (2010). Non-verbal communication in psychotherapy. Edgemont. 7(6), 38-44 Forchuk, C., Westwell, J., Martin, M., Bamber- Azzapardi, W., Kosterewa-Tolman, D., Hux, M. (2000). The developing nurse-client relationship: Nurses’ perspectives, 6(1), 3-10. Green, C. (1999). Nurses and the law of consent. Nursing Times, 95(5), 44–45. Grover, S.M. (2005). Shaping effective communication skills and therapeutic relationships at work. Aaohan Journal. 53(4), 177-182. Heidt, P. (1981). Effect of therapeutic touch on anxiety level of hospitalised patients. Nursing Research, 30(1), 32-37. Henderson, A. (2004). Emotional labour and nursing. An under appreciated aspect of nursing care. Nursing Inquiry, 8(2), 130-138. Hupcey, J.E., Penrod, J., Morse, J.M., Mitcham, C. (2001). An exploration and advancement of the concept of trust. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 36(2), 282-293. Ian Peate, (2005). Nursing Care and Activities of Living. 2nd ed. John Wiley Son:. Jones, A. (2007). Putting practice into teaching: an exploratory study of nursing undergraduates’ interpersonal skills and the effects of using empirical data as a teaching and learning resource. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16, 2297–307. Kacperek, L. (1997). Non-verbal communication: the importance of listening. British Journal of Nursing, 6, 275–9. Mason, M.C. (2010). Effective Interaction. Nursing Standard. 24,(31), 25 Mencap. (2007). Death by indifference: following up the Treat me right report. Mencap: London, United Kingdom. Michael, J. (2008). Healthcare for All: A report of the Independent Inquiry into access to healthcare for people with learning disabilities. HMSO: London, United Kingdom. NHS England. (2014). Retrieved from: http://www.england.nhs.uk/ourwork/forward-view/sop/. Nursing Midwifery Council. (2008). The Code: Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives: NMC. London, United Kingdom. Stevenson, C. (2004). Patient and person. Empowering interpersonal relationships in nursing. Elsevier Limited: London, United Kingdom. Timby, B.K. (2005). Fundamental nursing skills and concepts. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Publishing. Turnbull, J., Chapman, S. (2010). Supporting choice in health care for people with learning disabilities. Nursing Standard. 24(22), 50-55. Von Dietze, E., Orb, A. (2000). Compassionate care: a moral dimension of nursing. Nursing Inquiry, 7(3), 166-174.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Business In Internet Essay

1. Is Twitter just a bright idea or a real business opportunity? To what extent does Twitter’s situation reflect the past record of its founders? In my opinion, I think twitter is a good business opportunity. Like other internet service, twitter has a large number of users, which provide a potential revenue foundation. At present, twitter’s priority is to find a revenue model to transfer the abundant of users to money. If twitter finds thus a model, it will become another internet service giant in the world. At present, Twitter’s functional model is not original intention of the founder, William, which is an incident idea. After that, the founder notice that this model is suitable with people’s wants, allowing to disseminate information to others in real-time. The founder has a good idea for establishing company but not having a good idea to earn profit from the business. 2. A). what is Twitter’s Advantages and challenges given it chosen technology configuration? First, Twitter is easy to use. Twitter only focus on using text to communication. Users can easily to use twitter without learning or training. The challenge for the method is that text is dull. Some of users would feel twitter is not attractable. Second, web-based platform is another advantage for Twitter. Users can use Twitter service by accessing website from different systems. In my opinion, open source platform will bring twitter a great potential. Users can develop own application on Twitters according to their own interests. However, open source also has challenges that the malicious application can spread without proper supervision. B). what are the benefits and challenges for corporations looking to use Twitter internally and externally Benefit for internally using Twitter: the communication among employees or managers would be efficient because Twitter is just-in-time communication platform. Managers can use Twitter to transmit their order to the specific followers (employees); employees also can report work to managers by using the same method. Challenges for internally using Twitter: it is very different to organize the followers. And it is also danger to use Twitter to transmit business confidence. Using Twitter also can increase whisper or rumor spreading inside the corporates. Benefit for externally using Twitter: the customers can get new product information of the corporate on time, which is a good promotion and marketing method. The challenge for externally using Twitter is that marketing effect coverage significantly depends on the internet. 3. What has been Twitter’s marketing approach to date, and is it sustainable? Right now, in my opinion, Twitter has a very simple marketing approach to earn money, firstly, using abundant users to attract venture capital investors. Secondly, Twitter sells â€Å"@† (Twitter name) to big companies or big events. At present, none of twitter functions charge personal users. Most of its expenditure comes from the venture capital. For a long term, this approach cannot survive; however, the investors know the potential of Twitter. In the future, Twitter will provide difference revenue model to earn profit. 4. Can Twitter ever earn profits? If so, what are the best ways it can monetize? In my opinion, Twitter can earn profits in the future, if it does that: adopting advertising models would be a good method to earn money. Secondly, it is necessary to create paid content for users who want to have further service. Thirdly, Twitter can cooperate with publishers, job agencies, etc. collecting commission.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Partnership and Limited Liability Partnership Organization Essay

Introduction This is a report that shows a comparison between both Partnership and Limited Liability Partnership organization and to advise Mr. Tan on the business organization that is more likely to fit his needs for setting up a new consulting business. For this particular project, our group assumed that Mr. Tan used to be an accountant working for a big accounting firm and is now looking to set up a small accounting consultancy business. 1Process Required to Setup Business Organization Below are the processes to setting up a partnership and a limited liability partnership business organization respectively: 1.1Partnership Firstly, the partners have to fill with the Registrar an application for approval and reservation of partnership name. After the application is being approved, a partnership is required to be registered online via BizFile with ACRA through a professional business registration firm if both of the partners are not local citizen. The partnership must have at least two partners for registration. Following are the information needed: 1) Proposed name of the Partnership 2) Particulars of the partners/managers (foreign passport or Singapore ID) 3) Residential address of the partners/managers 4) Consent to Act as Manager and Statement of Non Disqualification to Act as Manager 5) If partner is a company: Registration details of the company 6) Singaporean or PR must pay Medisave 7) Declaration of compliance ACRA will then send an email of notification confirming the registration. A  business profile containing the registration details can be obtained as a softcopy via email from ACRA upon successful registration. Softcopies are usually sufficient to all purposes in Singapore. (enterAsia Information Services Pte Ltd, 2010) 1.2Limited Liability Partnership Firstly, the partners have to fill with the Registrar an application for approval and reservation of LLP name. After the application is being approved, an LLP is required to be registered online via BizFile with ACRA through a professional business registration. Following are the information needed: 1) Proposed name of the Limited Liability Partnership 2) Particulars of the LLP partners/managers (foreign passport or Singapore ID) 3) Residential address of the LLP partners/managers 4) Consent to Act as Manager and Statement of Non Disqualification to Act as Manager 5) If partner is a company: Registration details of the company 6) Declaration of compliance ACRA will then send an email of notification confirming the Singapore LLP registration. A business profile containing the registration details can be obtained as a softcopy via email from ACRA upon successful registration of the LLP. Softcopies are usually sufficient to all purposes in Singapore. (enterAsia Information Services Pte Ltd, 2010) 2Legal Characteristics of Each of the Business Organizations 2.1The Characteristics of Partnership (ASSAR, 2011) Two or more persons: Partnership involves business by a group of persons. There must be at least two persons to bring partnership into existence. Although there is no maximum number required in the Partnership Act, the Companies Act has placed a maximum limit 20 people in a business. A company must be registered if there are more than 20 people in the business. Contractual Relation: A partnership is a contractual relationship arising out of an agreement among the partners, a person does not become a partner out of his status as is the case in joint family. Persons entering in partnership must be competent to enter into a contract as it is essential, and the agreement among partners may be oral or in writing. A written agreement or deed is preferred because it helps in resolving some disputes among partners later on. Lawful Business: A partnership agreement only exists in a lawful business. Sharing of profits: An agreement among partners must include the sharing of profits and losses. A charitable trust cannot be called partnership because there is no sharing of profits. Profit sharing is only a superficial evidence of partnership but not a conclusive proof. The employees of a business may also share profits but they are not the partners. No Separate Legal Existence: A partnership firm is not a legal entity of its own. This means that the firm and the partners are one and the same. A firm is only a name to the collective name of partners and no firm can exist without partners. The rights and liabilities of the partners are the rights and liabilities of the firm. Management of the firm vests in partners who are its owners also. Unlimited Liability: Every individual partner is liable jointly and severally for the obligations of the partnership firm. Therefore, if assets of the business are not sufficient to meet the liabilities of creditors then private property of partners can be used to meet them. The creditors can claim their dues from anyone or all the partners. If these liabilities are met by one partner then he is entitled to receive rateable contributions from other partners. Restriction on Transfer of Shares: No partner can transfer his shares to an outsider without the unanimous consent of all other partners. It is based on the principle that a partner being an agent of the firm cannot delegate his authority unilaterally to outsiders. Utmost Good Faith: The very basis of partnership business is good faith and mutual trust. Each and every partner should act honestly and fairly in the conduct of business. A firm cannot be run if there is suspicion among partners. Partners must have faith in each other for running the business smoothly. 2.2The Characteristics of Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) A limited liability partnership is a business structures that operates similar to a partnership organizational structure. The difference is the limited personal liability afforded to each member of the company. Each partner is responsible for their own actions while conducting business. LLPs are tailored for professionals, such as doctors, lawyers and accountants. (Howell, 2012) Every Partner Equal: Each partner is an equal member in a LLP company. They decide together on various company issues, such as the name of the business, where it is located and how it is going to be operated. Partners also share equally in the profits and losses of the business. The number of people in LLP must not exceed 20. Limited Liability Protection: Each partner in this type of company is protected against the actions of the other partners which results in a lawsuit. For example, if one partner is subject of a malpractice claim and loses in court and have to pay damages, the other partners are not held financially responsible. However, partners in a LLP are liable for the obligations of the company such as loans used to purchase equipment and utility expenses. Pass Through Taxation of Profits: A limited liability partnership company is taxed similar to a business formed under the partnership and sole proprietorship organizational structures by a process called pass-through taxation. The company profits are not taxed at the company level but instead  are â€Å"passed through† to the partners to be reported on their individual tax returns. This prevents the double taxation that occurs in corporations where profits are taxed at the company and shareholder levels. 3Advantages and Disadvantages of Partnership and LLP 3.1Partnership Advantages of Partnership 1. Capital: Due to the nature of the business, the partners would contribute their share of capital to start up the business. Hence, the more partners there are, the higher the amount they could put into the business. This would give the partners better flexibility and greater potential for growth. It also means more potential profit, which would be equally shared between the partners. 2. Flexibility: It is generally easier to form, manage and run a Partnership. There are fewer restrictions in a partnership than in companies, in terms of the laws governing the formation. As the partners have the only say in the way the business is run without the interference of shareholders, they are far more flexible in terms of management, as long as all the partners can agree. 3. Shared Responsibility: Partners would be able to share the responsibility of the running of the business. This would allow the partners to make the most of their abilities and potential. Instead of dividing the management and taking equal shares of each business tasks, they would be able to divide the work according to their skills. Thus, if one partner is good with figures, they could deal with the book keeping and accounts, while the other partners might have different niche areas and specialize in different tasks. 4. Decision Making: Partners share the decision making and can help each other out when needed. With more partners means more brainstorming could be in place and the information they came out with could be picked out for  business ideas and for the solving of problems that the business may encounter. (Adrain, 2010) Disadvantages of Partnership 1. Disagreements: One of the most common disadvantages of partnership is the possibility of disagreements between the partners. People often have mixed ideas on how the business should be run, the task arrangements and are picky about what the best interests of the business are. All these might lead to arguments which might not only endanger the business, but also the relationship of those involved. That is why it is always preferred to draft a deed of partnership during the formation period to ensure that all partners are aware of what are in place in case of disputes and prepare for the procedures if a partnership is dissolved. 2. Agreement: As the partnership is jointly run, it is crucial that all the partners agree with decisions that are being made. This means that in some situations there is less freedom with regards to the management of the business. This is especially so compared to sole traders, where the sole trader need not seek agreement from anyone but himself. 3. Liability: Ordinary Partnerships are subject to unlimited liability, which means that each of the partners shares the liability and financial risks of the business equally. This might put of the idea of partnership for some people, as they might not want to take the risk. 4. Profit sharing: As partners share the profits equally, it can lead to inconsistency where one or more partners are not contributing a fair share of effort into the running or management of the business, but still reaping equal rewards. 3.2Limited Liability Partnership Advantages of Limited Liability Partnership (Janus Corporate Solutions, 2008) 1. Separate Legal Identity: A limited liability partnership has a separate legal identity. They can own properties, at the same time they can  enter into contracts, and sue or be sued in its’ own name. 2. Limited personal liability: The partners of the limited liability partnership will not be held personally liable for any business debts incurred by the limited liability partnership or the wrongful acts of their partners. A partner may, however, be held personally liable for claims from losses resulting from his own misconducts or omission. 3. Perpetual succession: Any changes in the limited liability partnership (e.g. resignation or death of its partners) do not affect its existence, rights or liabilities. 4. Ease of compliance: Compliance requirements are more complex than sole proprietorship but simpler than a private limited company. Disadvantages of Limited Liability Partnership (Janus Corporate Solutions, 2008) 1. Formation of limited liability partnership requires a minimum number of 2 partners at all times. 2. Individual partners can commit the partnership to formal business agreements without the consent of their partners. 3. Limited liability partnership lacks the ease of ownership transfer and investment that a company structure provides. 4. There are no corporate tax benefits: Tax exemptions are available to private limited companies but are not available to limited liability partnerships. A limited liability partnership is treated as tax transparent which means that limited liability partnerships are not taxed as an entity. Instead each partner is taxed on their share of the profits as per the personal income tax rates. 4Analysis on Choosing the Business Organization Since Mr. Tan is setting up a business for accountancy consulting, he should  opt for a Limited Liability Partnership organization instead of a Partnership. Mr. Tan is currently new to the business world, and might not have found a partner he could fully trust yet; therefore it is also to his advantage if his partner were to act wrongfully or if there is a change in partners, since in LLPs, partners are not liable for losses to outsiders arising from acts of another partner as compared to an unlimited liability if he were to go into a Partnership. In addition, the LLP is also not subject to full financial reporting and disclosure requirements, such as those on capital contributions and changes to capital (ACRA, 2005). This is an advantage to Mr. Tan’s business. Since the business is small, minor changes to capital will not have to be subjected to full reporting and disclosure. Furthermore, as mentioned earlier, LLPs are tailored for accountants. With that, our group is certain that Limited Liability Partnership Organization will meet the needs of Mr. Tan’s new consultancy business. Bibliography ACRA. (2005, May). Retrieved February 5, 2012, from ACRA Legal Digest Issue 8: http://www.acra.gov.sg/NR/rdonlyres/4B52C6B6-E89B-4DC3-A72C-A9C4BC62AAAB/10278/ACRA_LDI_08.pdf Adrain. (2010). The company warehouse. Retrieved 2012, from The company warehouse: http://blog.thecompanywarehouse.co.uk/2010/03/01/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-partnership/ ASSAR, R. (2011). Publish Your Articles. Retrieved February 2012, 6, from PublishYourArticles.org: http://www.publishyourarticles.org/knowledge-hub/business-studies/what-are-th e-characteristics-of-partnership.html enterAsia Information Services Pte Ltd. (2010). entersingaporebusiness. Retrieved Feb 05, 2012, from LTD Singapore: Setting up a limited liability partnership (LLP) in Singapore: http://www.entersingaporebusiness.info/limited-liability-partnership.php enterAsia Information Services Pte Ltd. (2010). How to set up a partnership in Singapore. Retrieved Feb 05, 2012, from entersingaporebusiness: http://www.entersingaporebusiness.info/partnership.php Howell, R. (2012). Hearst Communications Inc. Retrieved February 6, 2012, from Hearst Communications Inc.: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/characteristics-limited-liability-partnership-3729.html Janus Corporate Solutions. (2008). Singapore Limited Liability (LLP) Registration. Retrieved February 4, 2012, from guidemesingapore: http://www.guidemesingapore.com/incorporation/other/singapore-llp-registration-guide